(Phys.org) — Research published in the peer-review Journal of the Royal Society Interface on Wednesday presents a close look at the structure and physical properties of silkworm cocoons. The paper’s research efforts could move scientists closer toward coming up with tomorrow’s design principles for materials inspired by silkworm cocoons. Those materials might provide important advancements in materials for such areas as defense and manufacturing. The authors, Fujia Chen, David Porter, and Fritz Vollrath, note that silkworm cocoons have an impressive range of optimal structures. These are lightweight, strong and porous, and ideal for the development of “bio-inspired” composite materials. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Source: Wikimedia Commons The authors examine cocoon structure. Specifically, they present observations and measurements on twenty-five diverse types of cocoons. They set out to correlate their physical properties with the cocoons’ structure and morphology.Some advanced materials that could benefit from that understanding might end up in the manufacture of car panels, helmets and protective suits for mine workers. The study’s research was funded by a grant from the U.S. Air Force.Their work is certainly not the first nor the last that will talk about nature’s silk producers and what scientists can learn. Spider silk is recognized as an intriguing material in that it is strong and tough and elastic enough to stretch several times its original length. Earlier this year, Discover issued a report on lab work at the University of Wyoming, where silk-spinning silkworms were genetically engineered to spin a hybrid material, partly their own silk and partly that of a spider. Also earlier this year, scientists from Germany’s Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research created artificial heart tissue from silk produced by silkworms.Earlier this week, The Engineer reported that scientists from Tufts University in the U.S. bonded silk protein microfibers from silkworm cocoons to a silk protein scaffold to create a material that mimics the stiffness and surface roughness of bone.As for the publication on Wednesday, Prof. David Porter for the last few years has been collaborating with spider expert Fritz Vollrath at Oxford to study polymer science models and spider silk.They are part of The Oxford Silk Group, in the Department of Zoology, at Oxford. In studying the biology of spider silks, they hope to unravel the chemistry and evolution of these materials, along with a focus on spider-web engineering and behavior. As produced by spiders and insects, natural silks are made under benign conditions— ambient temperature, low pressure, and with water as solvent. “Clearly,” according to a statement from the Oxford Silk Group, “this is something we should aim to copy when designing and making fibers for the future.” Silkworms spinning spider webs © 2012 Phys.Org Journal information: Journal of the Royal Society Interface Citation: Silkworm structures drive push for new materials (2012, May 3) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-05-silkworm-materials.html Explore further
© 2014 Phys.org Close-ups of an experiment conducted by John Bush and his student Daniel Harris, in which a bouncing droplet of fluid was propelled across a fluid bath by waves it generated. Credit: Dan Harris (Phys.org) —It was an interesting week for physics research, as a team at MIT began taking a second look at pilot-wave theory—they’re wondering if, when looked at a certain way , fluid mechanics might suggest an alternative to quantum orthodoxy—they’re taking a new approach to define whether some types of matter are particles, or waves, or whether it’s about particles being carried along by waves. Meanwhile, another team at Chalmers University of Technology announced that the sound of an atom has been captured. By using sound to communicate with an artificial atom, they are looking to find ways to allow sound to take on the role of light in certain quantum physics situations to demonstrate certain phenomena. And at Princeton University, researchers have begun crystallizing light to create “solid” light that could compute previously unsolvable problems—locking photons together, they suggest, might also help answer some of the fundamental questions physicists still have regarding matter.Space scientists have been busy as well. One team built a model that simulates the birth of our solar system revealing a planetary mystery—are the planets that exist now part of a normal natural process or was there one or more rare events that led to their formation? More research will have to be done to find better evidence. Also, researchers working with Hubble found a supernova companion star after two decades of searching.In more practical news, researchers at the University of Glasgow reported that they had found a Hydrogen production breakthrough that could herald cheap green energy—they claim their process is 30 times faster than conventional techniques. Another team at UW-Madison claimed to have developed a tabletop motor using an entirely new driving principle based on an electric, rather than magnetic, field.There were also some surprises last week as well: Researchers at Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine announced a potential breakthrough in treating liver cancer—they found that a hormone that is involved in mammalian milk production might also help prevent liver cancer. And another team in England has created a new digital map that reveals some stunning, hidden archaeology of Stonehenge. It’s actually kind of eerie looking at it.And finally, if you’ve been wondering if you, or perhaps some of those around you, are inherently evil, a team of psychologists suggests that evil is not so banal, after all. They’re looking into what is known as the “banality of evil,” where ordinary people go along with atrocities, such as the holocaust, as mindless puppets. They think such instances are not banal at all and instead occur because those that go along when ordered to do so, do it out of a feeling of identification—this would mean that people committing such acts have far more choice in the matter than most of us would like to believe. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Best of Last Week – The sound of an atom captured, solid light created and the banality of evil (2014, September 15) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-09-week-atom-captured-solid-banality.html Explore further The sound of an atom has been captured
Explore further Journal information: Science Morality clearly plays a role in modern society, in many instances, it might even be cited as one of the prime preventers of chaos—people see, hear and engage in things that they deem moral, or immoral, and tend to respond in certain ways because of it. But because of its ephemeral nature, scientists have had difficulty not only defining and measuring it but perhaps more importantly, finding the ways in which it works in people and in society as a whole. In this latest effort, the researchers sought to learn more about how morality works by periodically asking people directly about their observations, feelings and acts.In the experiment, 1,252 people found via social media, agreed to download an app to their phone that allowed the researchers to query them at random times regarding moral acts they engaged in or witnessed during the prior hour, how it made them feel and how they responded. Text messages were sent to the volunteers and received from them over a period of three days. Afterwards, the researchers analyzed the 13,240 messages they’d received from the volunteers to see if they could spot patterns, trends or other pertinent information.Among the host of findings, the team discovered that those who considered themselves religious didn’t necessarily commit more or less moral or immoral acts than those who did not. They also found that people who were the target of a moral act tended to feel better about themselves than did those who committed a moral act themselves—and those same people tended to also be more likely to commit a moral act later on—social scientists call it moral contagion.The researchers also found evidence that suggests political affiliation had an impact on morality as well—those of a liberal persuasion, for example, tended to focus more on fairness between people, while those who saw themselves as more conservative tended to respond more strongly to acts of respecting authority or the status quo.The study marks a new foray into sociological testing techniques using new technology and might just be one of many to come that seek to better define the rules by which people behave in society. (Phys.org) —A team of researchers with members from the U.S., Germany and the Netherlands has uncovered some new ideas about the nature of morality by using a smartphone app. In their paper published in the journal Science, the researchers describe how they enlisted a large group of people to serve as volunteers in a morality experiment, and what they learned as a result. Jesse Graham, of the University of Southern California offers a Perspective piece in the same journal issue. Citation: Smartphone app used by experimenters to learn more about aspects of morality (2014, September 12) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-09-smartphone-app-experimenters-aspects-morality.html Image of the Smartphone Experience-Sampling Signal (SMS linking to smartphone survey). Credit: Wilhelm Hofmann More information: Morality in everyday life, Science 12 September 2014: Vol. 345 no. 6202 pp. 1340-1343 DOI: 10.1126/science.1251560 ABSTRACTThe science of morality has drawn heavily on well-controlled but artificial laboratory settings. To study everyday morality, we repeatedly assessed moral or immoral acts and experiences in a large (N = 1252) sample using ecological momentary assessment. Moral experiences were surprisingly frequent and manifold. Liberals and conservatives emphasized somewhat different moral dimensions. Religious and nonreligious participants did not differ in the likelihood or quality of committed moral and immoral acts. Being the target of moral or immoral deeds had the strongest impact on happiness, whereas committing moral or immoral deeds had the strongest impact on sense of purpose. Analyses of daily dynamics revealed evidence for both moral contagion and moral licensing. In sum, morality science may benefit from a closer look at the antecedents, dynamics, and consequences of everyday moral experience. © 2014 Phys.org How do former churchgoers build a new moral identity? This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
More information: One-pot room-temperature conversion of cyclohexane to adipic acid by ozone and UV light, Science 19 December 2014: Vol. 346 no. 6216 pp. 1495-1498. DOI: 10.1126/science.1259684ABSTRACTNitric acid oxidation of cyclohexane accounts for ~95% of the worldwide adipic acid production and is also responsible for ~5 to 8% of the annual worldwide anthropogenic emission of the ozone-depleting greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Here we report a N2O-free process for adipic acid synthesis. Treatment of neat cyclohexane, cyclohexanol, or cyclohexanone with ozone at room temperature and 1 atmosphere of pressure affords adipic acid as a solid precipitate. Addition of acidic water or exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation (or a combination of both) dramatically enhances the oxidative conversion of cyclohexane to adipic acid. An efficient catalytic process converts sugary biomass into a renewable feedstock for polymer production Explore further To make nylon, popularly used in panty hose, rope and a huge variety of other products, manufacturers first make adipic acid by mixing nitric acid with hexagon-shaped carbon molecules (cyclohexane) and other ingredients such as cobalt, copper, manganese, vanadate salts, and highly pressured oxygen. In addition to adipic acid, the process gives off nitrous oxide which is allowed to escape into the atmosphere where it harms the planet’s ozone layer (it’s also considered a greenhouse gas). So popular is nylon, and adipic acid (95 percent of it that’s made is used to make nylon), that prior research has found that up to eight percent of the eight million metric tons of nitrous oxide released into the atmosphere each year, is the result of making adipic acid for nylon production. In this new effort, the pair of researchers describe a process they developed for creating adipic acid that doesn’t release any nitrous oxide at all—it’s also simpler and costs less.Instead of adding nitric acid to cyclohexane (or cyclohexanol, or cyclohexanone) the two added ozone bubbles and ultraviolet light. The UV light caused the ozone to break down to O2 releasing single highly reactive oxygen atoms. Those atoms attached themselves to the carbon molecules weakening their bonds and eventually causing the hexagon rings to break, which resulted in the formation of adipic acid. They note that the process doesn’t require high pressure or any other new ingredients.Excited by their discovery, the two researchers tried the same method on other, larger hydrocarbons—no report on what they found, but they imply that the possibilities are tantalizing, which suggests other researchers might be looking to do the same very soon—that could conceivably lead to the development of ways to create other common materials that aren’t so harmful to the planet. Comparison of the industrial process and the method presented herein for production of adipic acid. (A) Industrial nitric acid process. (B) O3-UV method. Credit: Science 19 December 2014: Vol. 346 no. 6216 pp. 1495-1498. DOI: 10.1126/science.1259684 Citation: Research pair devise a way to make nylon precursor that is less harmful to the ozone layer (2014, December 19) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-12-pair-nylon-precursor-ozone-layer.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. © 2014 Phys.org (Phys.org)—A pair of researchers working at National Tsing Hua University in Taiwan, has found a way to make a precursor to the synthetic polymer commonly known as nylon that doesn’t cause the release of ozone damaging nitrous oxide. Kuo Chu Hwang and Arunachalam Sagadevan describe their process in a paper they’ve had published in the journal Science and explain why what they’ve discovered is important. Journal information: Science
A true fusion reactor, if one can be built, would of course represent a transformative event in human history—it is believed such reactors could provide the energy needed to relieve our reliance on coal, and nuclear fission. The idea is relatively simple—it is the implementation that has proven to be difficult. A gas is heated to a temperature high enough so that its atoms lose their electrons creating a mass of ions and electrons, i.e. plasma. If those ions run into each other with enough force, they fuse together, causing some of their mass to be converted into energy (as happens in the sun). The trick is in heating the gas to such a high temperature that no known material could hold it—to get around that, researchers have two main possibilities, cause an implosion that occurs so quickly that the material holding it would not be impacted, or use a magnetic field—the researchers at Tri Alpha are reportedly using the second approach, but with a twist, they put magnets around a cigar shaped field-reversed configuration that allows for firing angled plasma beams at one another and hemmed in the results with magnets and electrodes. Using this approach, they were reportedly able to heat the gas up to 10 million degrees Celsius and only stopped the machine because they ran out of fuel.While impressive, the achievement by the team in California still falls far short of the 3 billion degrees Celsius temperature needed to achieve a fusion reaction—the team next plans to tear down the machine, dubbed C-2U and replace it with an upgraded model which they believe will allow them to achieve a ten-fold increase in temperature. Citation: Tri Alpha Energy reportedly makes important breakthrough in developing fusion reactor (2015, August 26) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-08-tri-alpha-energy-reportedly-important.html Explore further Scientists propose an explanation for puzzling electron heat loss in fusion plasmas (Phys.org)—Science Magazine is reporting that physicists working at Tri Alpha Energy in Los Angeles have succeeded in building a device that held a ball of superheated hydrogen plasma for five milliseconds, longer than any other effort before, offering proof that it is possible to hold such gases in a steady state. The development represents a possible breakthrough in the development of a fusion reactor as the process involved is a move towards developing technology that can hold gases at temperatures high enough to sustain a fusion reaction. © 2015 Phys.org This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Journal information: Animal Cognition Citation: Study suggests virgin male mice prefer watching violence to watching sex (2016, February 15) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-02-virgin-male-mice-violence-sex.html To better understand why humans behave the way they do, scientists sometimes study the behavior of other animals—in this case, the researchers set up experiments with common house mice to learn more about what drives them to make behavioral decisions.The researchers conducted two main types of experiments. In the first, test mice were shown a loop of video on an iPhone that randomly depicted mice sniffing, fighting or having sex with one another. Those mice were then transferred to a cage that had side pockets that mice could enter and stay for as long as they liked—the attraction was video playing on an iPod. Two such trials were conducted, one where mice could watch either sniffing or sex, the other where they could watch either fighting or sex. The team found that on average, the mice spent 41 percent of their time watching sex compared to 34 percent sniffing in the first exercise and 40 percent of their time watching fighting versus 35 percent watching sex in the second—this indicates, the team claims, that the mice prefer to watch fighting most, then sex, then sniffing. Subsequent trials involved showing different clips of the same types of activities and offering rewards to the mice when they learned to recognize the difference between behaviors, to prove that they were responding to specific activities and not just the images in one video.In the second series of exercises, the researchers once again allowed the mice to choose the same type of videos, but this time the mice got an injection of morphine as they entered their miniature theater. Not surprisingly, the researchers found that the mice tended to come back to that theater no matter what was playing. © 2016 Phys.org Serotonin plays active role in the sexual preference of mice Credit: martha sexton/public domain More information: Shigeru Watanabe et al. Preference for and discrimination of videos of conspecific social behavior in mice, Animal Cognition (2016). DOI: 10.1007/s10071-016-0953-xAbstractWe showed mice videos of three conspecific social behaviors, namely sniffing, copulation, and fighting, in pairwise combinations using iPods and evaluated preference as determined by time spent in front of each iPod. Mice preferred the copulation video to the sniffing video, the fighting video to the sniffing video, and the fighting video to the copulation video. In Experiment 1a, we used a single video clip for each social behavior but used multiple video clips for each social behavior in Experiment 2a. Next, we trained mice to discriminate between the fighting and copulation videos using a conditioned-place-preference-like task in which one video was associated with injection of morphine and the other was not. For half of the subjects, the fighting video was associated with morphine injection, and for the other half, the copulation video was associated with morphine injection. After conditioning, the mice stayed longer in the compartment with the morphine-associated video. When tested with still images obtained from the videos, mice stayed longer in the compartment with still images from the video associated with morphine injection (Experiment 1b). When we trained mice with multiple exemplars, the subjects showed generalization of preference for new video clips never shown during conditioning (Experiment 2b). These results demonstrate that mice had a preference among videos of particular behavior patterns and that they could discriminate these videos as visual category. Although relationship between real social behaviors and their videos is still open question, the preference tests suggest that the mice perceived the videos as meaningful stimuli. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further (Phys.org)—A trio of researchers working in Japan has found via experiments they conducted, that male virgin mice prefer to watch videos of other mice fighting with one another, than videos of mice having sex. In their paper published in the journal Animal Cognition, Shigeru Watanabe with Keio University, Kazutaka Shinozuka with the RIKEN Brain Science Institute and Takefumi Kikusui with Azabu University, all in Japan, report on behavioral experiments they conducted with house mice and what they believe their findings suggest about mouse behavior.
Journal information: ACS Nano The researchers, led by Chunyi Zhi, Professor of Materials Science and Engineering at the City University of Hong Kong, have published a paper on the new yarn battery in a recent issue of ACS Nano.So far it has been challenging to develop high-performance wearable batteries due to a lack of materials that are both highly conductive yet strong and flexible enough to be woven into fabric. By addressing these issues, the new yarn battery exhibits one of the best performances to date, including a power density similar to that of supercapacitors, as well as an energy density and capacity similar to that of conventional batteries.”We utilize highly conductive and weavable yarns to fabricate a yarn battery with state-of-the-art performance in terms of capacity, energy density, power density, and rate capability,” Zhi told Phys.org. “The yarns are further weaved to make a wristband battery to power various personal electronics.”The core of the yarn battery consists of highly flexible micrometer-sized stainless steel filaments, onto which metals are deposited (zinc as the anode, nickel cobalt hydroxide as the cathode). A gel electrolyte is then coated around the entire piece of yarn. A new low-cost battery offers a hefty voltage and sustained energy capacity As the researchers explain, each material contributes to the good performance of the overall battery: The stainless steel yarn is strong enough to be woven and knitted by both machine and hand, and its conductivity also provides good long-distance electron transport. Synergistic effects between the nickel and cobalt metal ions boost the capacity and energy density values above those that would be possible using either metal alone.By the numbers, the battery delivers power densities of 2.2 W/cm3, and 33 mW/cm2 for the whole battery. It has energy densities of 8 mWh/cm3, and 0.12 mWh/cm2 for the whole battery. All of these values are among the highest reported to date. The battery’s capacity, 16.6 mAh/cm3, is the highest value so far reported for a fiber-based energy storage device, to the best of the researchers’ knowledge.After bending and twisting for 1,000 cycles, the battery retains 80% and 70% of its initial capacity, respectively. The researchers explain that the capacity loss is due to the formation of cracks on the electrodes when deformed.To demonstrate the battery, the researchers wove the conductive yarn into a large conductive cloth, which could be used as a wristband battery to power electronic devices such as watches and LEDs. They expect that the yarn battery will have applications for wearable electronics, smart garments, and in healthcare in the future.”Next we plan to make textile batteries that are washable, water-proof, and durable, in order to be closer to commercialization,” Zhi said. The flexible, conductive yarn can be woven or knitted into cloth, which can later be used to power various electronic devices. Credit: Huang et al. ©2017 American Chemical Society (Phys.org)—Researchers have fabricated rechargeable batteries by using highly conductive yarns that have a diameter and flexibility similar to that of a piece of cotton yarn. The new yarn battery can be woven into fabric and worn as a wristband or other type of clothing to power watches, LEDs, pulse monitors, and other small personal electronics. A wristband made of cloth woven from the new yarn battery can power a watch (left), LEDs (upper right), and a pulse sensor (bottom right). Credit: Huang et al. ©2017 American Chemical Society More information: Yan Huang et al. “Weavable, Conductive Yarn-Based NiCo//Zn Textile Battery with High Energy Density and Rate Capability.” ACS Nano. DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.7b03322 Explore further © 2017 Phys.org Citation: Watches, LEDs powered by yarn battery (2017, August 25) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-08-powered-yarn-battery.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
The proposed model of cytosolic mobility: (Red box) objects (red spheres) larger than the pore size of the cytoskeleton (50-75 nm) are trapped in a viscoelastic medium and experience restricted diffusion, (green box) if objects are perfectly inert they diffuse freely without hindrance due to obstacles, (purple box) when objects interact with intracellular components diffusion is slowed down but remains Brownian, (yellow box) if interactions increase to the point that immobilization time is longer than the time of observation, the diffusion is significantly slowed down to become anomalous, known as subdiffusion. Credit: Nature Materials (2018) doi: 10.1038/s41563-018-0120-7 Play Representative videos of 25 nm fluorescently labelled NPs diffusing in HeLa cells after pinocytic loading for single-particle tracking experiments. Top panel: unburst vesicles with encapsulated NPs; particles in the intact vesicles move very fast and cannot be tracked individually. Bottom panel: examples of typical regions of interest selected for single-particle tracking analysis of NPs, systematically excluding the unburst vesicles. Behavioral difference of free versus encapsulated NPs ensured a reliable discrimination between the two cases. Images were acquired every 10 ms; video was encoded at 30 frames per second (fps). Scale bar 1 µm. Credit: Nature Materials (2018), doi: 10.1038/s41563-018-0120-7. A brief osmotic shock enabled the dispersion of NPs into the cytoplasm. The NP’s diffusion-based exploration of the cell’s interior was monitored by extensive single-particle tracking experiments. Using this approach, a variety of NP surface modifications and particle sizes ranging from 15 to 75 nm were observed to interact with the surroundings for pronounced diffusion anomalies. , Cell © 2018 Phys.org The experimental data were also explained with a minimal model based on continuous-time random walks, where particles were described to take power-law-distributed rests between periods of free diffusion motion. With this approach, the findings on MSD could be reproduced and captured as particle trajectories. Future work is required to explore if these results also apply to crowds of one to 10 nm-sized macromolecules in cells. Gaining an understanding of how anomalous random walks can be altered when modifying non-equilibrium conditions in cells (such as changed metabolic states) will keep both experimentalists and theorists busy. Overall, the researchers proposed a unified framework to describe the dynamics of diffusion related to nanosized objects in the cell cytoplasm. The study also provided a quantitative benchmarking tool to design perfectly inert NPs that could diffuse within cells unhindered by obstacles, and defined them as “lone maze runners.” Such insights may become crucial to design intracellular drug delivery pathways to easily reach molecular targets within cells in the future. Citation: Maze runners and square dancers: Cytosolic diffusion of nanosized objects in mammalian cells (2018, August 15) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-08-maze-runners-square-dancers-cytosolic.html Cells are complex, multi-compartmentalized entities of matter enclosed with a variety of membrane-bound organelles ranging from the microscale (µm) down to the nanoscale (nm) in diameter. These structures intermingle in a crowded aqueous phase known as the cytoplasm, within which diffusion deviates from Brownian motion. Understanding the concept of “cell crowding” and the impact on intracellular mobility can enable controlled diffusion within cells for improved drug delivery and other medical applications. The eukaryotic cytoplasm is a biphasic poroelastic (fluid and solid interaction) medium, containing a fluid phase (cytosol with water and soluble proteins) and a solid phase (cytoskeleton and other organelles). PausePlay% buffered00:0000:00UnmuteMuteDisable captionsEnable captionsSettingsCaptionsDisabledQuality0SpeedNormalCaptionsGo back to previous menuQualityGo back to previous menuSpeedGo back to previous menu0.5×0.75×Normal1.25×1.5×1.75×2×Exit fullscreenEnter fullscreen Explore further , Reports on Progress in Physics More information: Fred Etoc et al. Non-specific interactions govern cytosolic diffusion of nanosized objects in mammalian cells, Nature Materials (2018). DOI: 10.1038/s41563-018-0120-7 Matthias Weiss. A tale about square dancers and maze runners, Nature Materials (2018). DOI: 10.1038/s41563-018-0126-1A. Einstein. Über die von der molekularkinetischen Theorie der Wärme geforderte Bewegung von in ruhenden Flüssigkeiten suspendierten Teilchen, Annalen der Physik (2007). DOI: 10.1002/andp.19053220806 Alice B. Fulton. How crowded is the cytoplasm?, Cell (2004). DOI: 10.1016/0092-8674(82)90231-8 Felix Höfling et al. Anomalous transport in the crowded world of biological cells, Reports on Progress in Physics (2013). DOI: 10.1088/0034-4885/76/4/046602 O. Bénichou et al. Geometry-controlled kinetics, Nature Chemistry (2010). DOI: 10.1038/nchem.622 Experiments conducted with tracers on intracellular motion have typically revealed both Brownian and subdiffusive motion (or anomalous diffusion). High concentrations of macromolecules in the cytoplasm described as “obstructive molecular crowding” and biochemical interactions (electrostatic or hydrophobic) naturally affect the mobility of intracellular tracers. As a result, a fundamental question has remained unresolved: Can a unified framework account for the large variability of behaviors observed in cytosolic diffusion? Now writing in Nature Materials, Fred Etoc and colleagues have used single-particle tracking of fluorescent nanoparticle (NP) tracers to observe and propose a unified framework that describes the diffusion dynamics of nanosized objects in the eukaryotic cell cytoplasm.The researchers demonstrate:Inert objects were unaffected by obstructive molecular crowding to show Brownian motion, diffusing in a medium of low viscosity—if they were below approximately 75 nm in size. The researchers metaphorically compared them to “maze runners”Tracers that were approximately 25 nm in size but with increased non-specific interactions slowed down diffusion by three orders of magnitude, to gradually become anomalous and were compared to “square dancers”The strength of non-specific interactions is captured into a single parameter using a simple continuous time random walk (CTRW) model, a textbook model that describes the random walk performed by diffusing particles. By fixing a few basic properties of the random walk, it was possible to observe that diffusing particles explored an area (mean square displacement – MSD) that grew linearly in time. To define the phenomenon of intracellular motion experimentally, Etoc and co-workers hijacked a cellular entry gate known as the pinocytosis pathway (observed with vesicle formation to transport biological materials), to import functionalized and fluorescently labelled nanoparticles (NPs) in to living HeLa cells. Cytoplasmic diffusion of individual NPs (20 to 50 NPs per cell) was recorded by time-lapse microscopy and quantified using single-particle tracking analysis. In the cytoplasm of living HeLa cells non-specific interactions mainly contribute to anomalous diffusion. By changing the surface properties of NPs from strong to almost vanishing interactions within the interior of living cells, the trajectories of interacting NPs (square dancers) were shown to exhibit significant anomalous diffusion (indicated by red regions in density plots). In contrast, non-interacting NPs (lonesome maze runners) underwent normal diffusion. Adapted from doi:10.1038/s41563-018-0120-7. Credit: Nature Materials (2018), doi: 10.1038/s41563-018-0126-1. In the study, Etoc et al. estimated mobility at short timescales by computing time averaged MSD at 60 ms, expressed in terms of the diffusion coefficient D60ms To represent the behavior of the whole population of NPs in each condition, the distribution of the parameters α (anomalous exponent) and D60ms arising from each individual trajectory, was presented as a two-dimensional (2-D) density map. Such density plots for hundreds of trajectories and conditions that integrated the results of α and D60ms were summarized elegantly in the findings. , Nature Chemistry The hidden order in DNA diffusion Journal information: Nature Materials This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
The term sustainable growth is an oxymoron. The connotations of growth are essentially and characteristically in contradiction with those of sustainability.Historically, all economic growth has come at the cost of environmental as well as social developments, which contradicts the fundamentals of sustainability. Businesses and governments have been so overly focused towards growth that parameters like GDP, revenue and profit have become generally accepted yardsticks to determine if an institution has been a success or a failure. Also Read – Gateway of criminal justiceMore and more governments today are making some conscious efforts to make necessary shifts towards sustainability, thanks to the myriad perils of accelerated growth coming to the fore. However, the results have been slow to come by and often inadequate. Be it achieving goals of carbon emission reduction or the provisioning of night shelters for the urban homeless, there continues to be a lurching shortage. Why?Arguably, the goals are staggering and the resources required are hardly enough. However, we also considered enough that our idea of sustainability may be fundamentally flawed? Even worse, it may be distorted – the overarching dominance of growth in our thought process being the obvious culprit. Also Read – Turning a blind eyeThe whole notion of growth revolves around creating surplus for targeted beneficiaries – be they individuals, companies or governments. And any creation of surplus in one place is likely to create shortages in some other place. If thriving economies have been firing their growth engines supplied by fossil fuels, we know that ecosystems world over have suffered. Growth and sustainability do not go hand in hand. When growth is set to be a goal, sustainability cannot be expected as an outcome. So governments that truly aspire for sustainability will probably need to find ways to stop making growth-focused plans for economy and instead work to put sustainability parameters at the core of each activity that they conduct. I personally have no idea whether dismantling the planning commission, a primary axis for driving economic growth for decades, has been done with a sustainability agenda as an alternative. However, there indeed lies an opportunity for the government to do so and make the necessary corrections.Does technology have a role to play in making the necessary correction?Technologies in general and IT in particular have been leveraged as key catalysts of growth, so much so that we have got ourselves pushed to the verge of sustainability limits in a matter of few decades. Can these technologies also be applied to give a fillip to sustainability-driven governments and societies? Indeed. Technologies after all are means to an end and not an end in themselves.Depending on how IT technologies are deployed and applied, they could either act as perpetrators of the growth archetypes or emerge as the harbingers of a sustainability era. Yes, growth is too deeply entrenched across all our economic, social and political ecosystems, so larger-than-life forces would be required to shake things up. From such a standpoint, any such changes need to be initiated by none less than the heads of states and institutions. It is no coincidence that the dismantling of the planning commission was done by none other than the prime minister himself.Transformation-oriented ICTThe shift from growth to sustainability requires an all-round transformation – not only in terms of institutional structures and processes but also in terms of the mindsets.As such, it is essential that the IT and communication technologies, employed to achieve the sustainability goals that a government may happen to consider for itself, are chosen with care. It goes without saying that these technologies and paradigms need to scalable, elastic, real-time and contagiously viral so as to bring about a much needed orientation towards the sustainability goals.In this context, cloud computing, big data, social media, et al are some of the new-age models that readily come to mind. For example, cloud models could be used to rapidly push both government-to-government (G2G) and government-to-citizen (G2C) services in a uniform and ubiquitous manner. Big data and analytics could be used to continuously monitor the impact of those G2G and G2C programmes and make necessary refinements – even targeted outreach sub-programmes – seamlessly. Social media channels, along with other digital as well as analogue channels, could be leveraged judiciously to run awareness campaigns, with feedback mechanism interwoven, to ensure that the benefits of the programmes reach the intended groups in a timely fashion. Sustainable ICT is the key The footprints of ICT deployments, if not carried out with a sustainability-first policy, can be deleteriously counterproductive to the extent of being self-defeating. For example, cloud data centres or even the ones that power social media data streams could be gigantic energy guzzlers. Some of the large data centres are known to consume as much power as would be sufficient to run entire cities.It would therefore be important to ensure that the ways and processes in which the ICT technologies are harnessed are designed to be sustainable. For example, if the data centres could be majorly powered by solar or wind energies, that could cut down carbon footprints of these facilities. As a step further, what if these facilities could also produce surplus power that could be routed to grids that power the communities nearby!Renewable energy also offers an exception – it makes it possible to produce a surplus for all and not for a select few, without an environmental trade-off. It should not be an afterthought when it comes to “ICT for sustainability” and instead should become one of the fundamental premises around which the whole architecture is developed.This could actually lead to a change in the very basis on which a state data centre location is decided. The stakeholders could consider building clusters of data centres near deserts where solar and wind power are almost perennially available aplenty.Having said that, why does a state data centre need to be located within the boundaries of a state? It could very well be located in another state where, say, there is no dearth of solar power. The most significant advantage of this would be to rapidly achieve the economies of scale for mega-scale solar power generation and in the process also reduce the dependence of the country as a whole on fossil-fuel powered electricity that accounts for a large chunk of India’s carbon footprint. A simple step like this towards sustainable ICT could help trigger a virtuous cycle of “green” ecosystem development. For instance, a solar-powered energy surplus could make the electric vehicles more dependable and viable, among other various possibilities. Sounds like wishful thinking? Well, from a growth-thinking perspective it does; from a sustainability-thinking standpoint it starts looking possible. Also, to reemphasise, for such sustainability goals to be formed and achieved, a country would need no less than a larger-than-life head of state to be the driver. Kumar is founder analyst at BusinessandMarket.net, a market researcher and strategic adviser with diverse interests. GOVERNANCE NOW
Kolkata: Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee is all set to fly to Bengaluru on Wednesday to attend the much-anticipated swearing-in ceremony of H D Kumaraswamy as the Chief Minister of Karnataka. After B S Yeddyurappa chose to resign as the CM instead of facing the trust vote, Mamata Banerjee tweeted: “Democracy wins. Congratulations Karnataka. Congratulations Deve Gowda Ji, Kumaraswamy Ji, Congress and others. Victory of the ‘regional’ front.”She also called up former Prime Minister Deve Gowda and expressed her satisfaction. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsIt may be recalled that in an interview to a vernacular television channel almost a week ago, Banerjee had maintained that there might be a hung Assembly in Karnataka and H D Kumaraswamy might become the Chief Minister. Her prediction has come true. After the election result in Karnataka was out, Banerjee said it would have been different had the Congress inked ties with the JDS. In the 224-member Assembly, the BJP got 104 seats while Congress and JDS got 78 and 38 seats while others got 2. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedIt was Banerjee who started gathering anti-BJP parties on a common ground and work towards a Federal Front to contest against the BJP in the 2019 Lok Sabha polls. In the process, she spoke to Chandrababu Naidu, KCR, Mayawati and Akhilesh Yadav. KCR flew down to Kolkata to discuss the matter with her. Banerjee feels that to maintain the federal structure of India, the regional parties should grow stronger.Partha Chatterjee, Trinamool Congress secretary general, said: “It is difficult to say why the one who could not retain his post then, even took the oath. If all are united then BJP will be finished in 2019,” he remarked. Rashtriya Janata Dal (RJD) leader Tejashwi Yadav also took to Twitter soon after Yeddyurappa announced his decision to resign as the Karnataka chief minister.”Truth can never be defeated! Truth will always defeat a lie or liar! #KarnatakaFloorTest,” the younger son of party chief Lalu Prasad wrote on the microblogging website.All those who believe in democracy are happy, said Andhra Pradesh Chief Minister Chandrababu Naidu, whose Telugu Desam Party exited the NDA in March.”This is a big blow for them(BJP), and I think what they had been planning all along for 2019 has failed, they will now have to rethink and alter their strategies,” said BSP supremo Mayawati.
Kolkata: Presidency University Vice-Chancellor Anuradha Lohia on Monday sought another four to five months from the students to hand over the Hindu Hostel after renovation. Meanwhile, the students have decided to continue their agitation in demand of the hostel and claimed that they will turn the university into a hostel and will stay there until they are handed over the renovated hostel.Lohia, who faced protest from the agitating students while entering the varsity, said that the Public Works Department (PWD) of the state government has not been able to complete the renovation work in time. The V-C had promised to open the Hindu Hostel for students by July 15. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal life”I apologise for the delay in handing over the hostel to the students. The day PWD completes the work for renovation, the hostel will be handed over to the students,” Lohia said. She also reiterated that the university authorities will not compromise with the safety of the students while renovation of the hostel. The agitating students said that they will bring all their belongings from their hostel at Tarulia in New Town and will turn the university into their hostel. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killed”We will be studying here and will stay here overnight,” an agitating student said. Clothes belonging to the students were found hanging in front of the room of the V-C on Monday. It may be mentioned that Hindu Hostel has been closed for renovation since July 2015 and the students were offered hostel facilities at NewTown.The V-C on Thursday brought out a notification, declaring the delay in handing over the hostel. She also stated that a committee has been formed with as many as six student representatives in it, for supervising the renovation work for the hostel.The students had started their agitation from Friday at the administrative building of the university.
Kolkata: West Bengal Housing & Infrastructure Development Corporation (HIDCO) is exploring options for starting monorail services for easy and faster communication in areas of Salt lake and New Town that cannot be covered by Metro services.”We have already completed the feasibility study along with the cost evaluation for the project. We are now looking for investors,” HIDCO chairman Debasish Sen said on the sidelines of Kolkata regional dialogue on ‘Preparing for the Future of Urban Mobility’ organised by the Bengal Chamber and The Energy and Resource Institute (TERI). Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeAccording to HIDCO sources, the alignment for the monorail that has been created will start from Ultadanga station and will run through Sector I and Sector III in Salt Lake and will reach New Town. The total project cost has been estimated at Rs 4,500 crore.It may be mentioned that the two Metro projects — East West and Garia-Kolkata Airport Metros — work for which are going on in full swing will not be able to cover entire Salt Lake and New Town area. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killed”The monorail network will plug this gap,” a senior HIDCO official said.HIDCO is holding talks with start-up companies which can carry out real time analysis of CCTV footages to prevent accidents. The aim is to strengthen the ‘Safe Drive Save Life’ campaign initiative that was launched by Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee in July 2016. The state government has already done GIS mapping and have marked accident prone areas in New Town.Talking of various initiatives that have been taken in New Town, Sen said house owners have been given the nod to convert their ground floors into cafes by paying Rs 500 to the authorities.”A large number of people working in the IT sector, particularly women feel unsafe when they return home at night,” Sen said adding that this step will increase the sense of safety and security of the citizens.He also touched upon the introduction of three electric buses, 10 charging stations, dedicated cycle track, smart bus stations with outdoor gym equipment and a number of initiatives towards urban mobility in New Town.
Kolkata: The Election Commission is gearing up for voting in the booth at Srikhola Primary School under Bijanbari block in Darjeeling which is located at an altitude of 2,700 feet from the sea level. This booth in the district is located at the highest altitude in Bengal. Darjeeling will have polls on April 18, during the second phase of elections.”The booth is located very close to the Indo-Nepal border and is highly sensitive and accessibility is a major challenge. It is five hours’ drive from Darjeeling town and then a steep climb of nearly 7 km on horses. The election officials and the security personnel including the Central Forces will be reaching the booth at least 24 hours in advance,” an EC official said. Also Read – Rs 13,000 crore investment to provide 2 lakh jobs: MamataBijanbari is a small town located in a valley. There is a winding scenic road that goes down all the way from Ghoom to this sleepy town over a stretch of 22 kilometres. Lovely mountain streams, waterfalls, tea gardens and the green forest is a feast to the eyes. However, the booth located at the extreme end of this block has around 915 voters who hail from four villages. The residents in the area have been demanding proper connectivity to this place for a very long time. Also Read – Lightning kills 8, injures 16 in stateThere have been attempts by the state Public Works Department (PWD) to construct a narrow motorable road through the hills to reach the booth. Some part of the road was also built by the PWD engineers but a major landslide that took place a few months back had damaged it. It may be mentioned that the total number of booths in Darjeeling parliamentary constituency is 1,899 among which 874 booths are in the hills and the rest 1,025 booths are in the plains. Out of the 874 booths in the hills, 261 booths are in Kurseong Assembly constituency (AC), 321 in Darjeeling AC and 292 booths in Kalimpong AC. Darjeeling parliamentary constituency has 80 percent of its booths highly sensitive and the Commission is making special security arrangements for all of them.
Everyone is dreaming of becoming a successful entrepreneur, so you need to execute a great startup strategy to excel. Starting a new business is not a piece of cake. Apart from a great idea and business plan, it requires many other things in order to make it successful. For instance, you need to raise the required capital for your new business, which can either be from your personal savings or from investors. With these things, every entrepreneur starts their new business in the market and hopes to be successful in what they do. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfSteve Jobs rightly said “Your work is going to fill a large part of your life, and the only way to be truly satisfied is to do what you believe is great work. And the only way to do great work is to love what you do.” Most of the flourishing entrepreneurs of today have a secret behind their success, which they have revealed. The secret is that they begin their startup backwards. So, let us look at the 5 ways through which you can ensure that your startup is a big success. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveBegin with a plan- Not all home businesses need an official business plan, but every home business owner must spend some time planning. Before you put out your shingle, sit down and determine how much money you need to invest (and in what), your goals (short- and long-term), your marketing plan and all those pesky details. When starting a new venture in an emerging market or with an untested model, it’s important to keep costs as close to zero as possible. Those who’ve bootstrapped their company know this better than anyone. When you do bootstrapped business, you tend to work from your own house initially for few months. You play smartly with finance, and it should be very, very carefully spent. Instead of hiring developers or bringing on a technical co-founder, the entire system and workflow should be built in Google Docs — the “personal” version. Use smart and cost-effective business tools- There are a number of tools available which assist you in achieving the best possible results with minimum expenditure. These tools also assist you in defining your business and your vision and give you a reality check on the viability of your business ideas. The use of these tools means that you do not have to use your scarce money and resources in employing experts who may be useful. Improving Business Model over time – Financial services is a competitive market that could be saturated by financial institutions in a few years. The important thing is that how one can articulate a clear, logical view on how CommonBond will achieve market share in the short term as well as many ideas on how it will invest in sales and marketing efforts to enhance its competitive advantage over time. Identify the needs of your customers- For any business customers service is the most essential part. Ideally, you should identify customer needs which your business can satisfy better than your existing competitors, because of the competitive advantages of your business, which distinguish you from the rest. Most of the companies just guess about the type of products or services their customers wish for. This is why many startups fail, as they do not understand their customers’ needs and guess it wrong. Speak to your clients- When you have recognized your ideal consumers, you have two options, either you can speculate about the services or products they want or you can just go and talk to them about what type of products or services they wish for. In order to have an edge over other businesses and be successful in your business, you must talk to your clients. Ask them questions so that you can know the problem they are facing. Then, you can work on this problem, which is shared by many people, and then you can take the leap. Keep Track on everything- Make sure that you manage your business through numbers and keep track of everything. You must do it in writing and produce written documents for everything, since you will get advantages from these in the future. This way you can retain consistency and train your employees too. Identify the numbers and verify them regularly. Plus, you must make all your decisions depending on these numbers. Among these, one of the most significant estimates is the cash flow document. There are several other things to consider when it comes to set a startup, but the few tips above are highly important. When you get them right, you’re mostly on your way to establishing a strong and successful startup business. (Author is Mr. Pradeep Shukla- CEO & CO-Founder- OOFFRR App)
The Garhi Winter Show 2018 was inaugurated on November 24 at the Lalit Kala Akademi Art Galleries of Rabindra Bhawan, Mandi House, New Delhi by Adesh Kumar Gupta, Mayor, North MCD and Uttam Pacharne, Chairman LKA.The inaugural ceremony took place in the gracious presence of JS Culture Ministry, Nirupama Kotru, Rajan Shripad Fulari, Secretary LKA, and other practicing artists, art critics and art lovers in a great number. The show will be on for public viewing till 3rd December, 2018 from 12 noon to 8 pm everyday at the Lalit Kala Akademi Art Galleries (nos.), Rabindra Bhawan, Mandi House, New Delhi. Around 250 artworks comprising of paintings, sculptures, graphics, ceramics etc. by over 130 artists have been put on display. Inaugurating the Winter Show 2018, the Chief Guest Shri Adesh Kumar Gupta congratulated the participating artists and said, “This is my second visit to the Lalit Kala Akademi and I feel honoured to be here. I congratulate Pacharne for his innovative ventures in the field of art since his joining the LKA as its Chairman. Artists always connect with the nature and the same can be witnessed in the artworks exhibited in this show. All the work here are really beautiful and unique in themselves.” Uttam Pacharne, Chairman, Lalit Kala Akademi, in his inaugural address, reiterated the glorious history of Garhi Regional Centre of LKA,. “The Garhi artists studio was established in 1976 when the DDA had allotted a four-acre land area with an aim to promote art. It was the profound and determined conceptualization of well-known artist Prof. Sankho Chaudhuri that took shape into what we know today as the LKA RC Garhi. Garhi studios have given the art world artists such as Gogi Saroj Pal, Arpana Caur, Subodh Gupta, Bharti Kher, Dattatraya Apte, Jayant Gajera etc. to name a few.At present, over 350 senior as well as young artists are practicing at the RC Garhi. I congratulate all the participating artists in the show and express my hearty greetings to them,” he said. Congratulating the participant artists, JS, Culture Ministry, Government of India, Nirupama Kotru appreciated the efforts of the Akademi in the promotion of arts. She also promised every possible aid from the Culture Ministry.
Kolkata: A fire audit has been conducted at 644 multi-storey buildings and places across the city and more buildings will soon be covered to check the incidents of fire, said state Fire minister Sujit Bose.While answering a question, Bose recently said in the Assembly that his department has been undertaking all preventive measures to curb incidents of fire in the state. To ensure that all the buildings adhere to the fire safety norms, particularly the high-rise ones, the Fire department has initiated the audit. Many more buildings have been identified, where fire audit would be undertaken soon, the minister said. Also Read – Rs 13,000 crore investment to provide 2 lakh jobs: MamataFire audits have been initiated in marketplaces as well, which are vulnerable to incidents of fire. It has been found during investigation that the buildings which catch fire, lack fire safety mechanisms. It may be recalled that the city has recently witnessed a number of fire incidents in various places. The Fire minister also said that Rs 104.44 crore was spent in the last financial year for modernisation and buying new equipments. Around 11 new ladders have been procured at Rs 11 crore and Rs 35 crore was spent for buying new equipments. Many fire stations have been constructed in different places. Also Read – Lightning kills 8, injures 16 in stateIt may be mentioned here that the city’s Mayor Firhad Hakim had earlier requested Bose to complete the fire audit of the markets across the city soon, to crack the whip on those market authorities who are not following the guidelines of the fire brigade. Hakim also proposed certain rules and regulations after discussing with the fire brigade. Fire audit is necessary in marketplaces and multi-storeyed buildings because the firefighters often face problems while dousing the flames due to the hoardings and glow-signboards which remain fixed on the buildings. As a result of this, the firefighters have to pull down the hoardings to spray water. Meanwhile, Kolkata Municipal Corporation officials also held meetings with the Fire department to impose some restrictions on hawkers who put up their stalls in marketplaces.
South Korean K-Pop group VAV is all set to begin their debut India tour from today with a two-hour concert in Delhi of their biggest hits, including their latest ‘Thrilla Killa’. The boy group, which debuted in 2015, announced their tour in the beginning of May on social media, finally giving in to “requests from their Indian fans”, they told reporters at the Korean Cultural Centre (KCC), Delhi. They will perform at the Siri Fort Auditorium in New Delhi today, and in Manipur’s Imphal on June 2. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfThe band members – Ziu, Ace, Lou, Ayno, Baron and St Van – said they were nervous but excited to meet their fans, and that India had been on their list since quite some time. “India is very big in terms of population and size. When you see Indian movies, Indians are always dancing in sync. “Indians are full of passion and always like to sing and dance,” the members said in response to a question, inviting their fans to sing and dance with them at the concert. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveBaron added that India has been a mysterious country in his mind, and he hopes that the concert will set the base for Indo-Korean cultural exchanges. Much to the delight of the students of the KCC, many of whom learn the Korean language and are immersed in the East Asian country’s culture, VAV members greeted them with a ‘Namastey’ gesture. K-Pop, a popular musical genre of South Korea, has many avid followers in India, which also saw ‘Gangnam Style’, a famous 2012 K-Pop song going viral. The concert has been arranged by Kiwa India, an organisation promoting Indo-Korean ties. “This is a collaboration between India and Korea to promote cultural ties and break language barriers. We did much research and found VAV is the best K-Pop group to hold a concert in India,” Eunjoo Lim, Kiwa CEO, said. The boy group signed off with listing the words they instantly connect with India – ‘Hindi’, ‘Bollywood’, ‘3 Idiots’, and ‘Namastey’ – were some of the popular terms.
France and America have a long history of fraternity and alliance, most famously France gifted the Statue of Liberty to America in 1886. Like every relationship, there are periods of conflict, but in the late 18th Century, France was the biggest supporter of American Independence which sparked a wave of pro-French sentiment across the newly forming country.The French were expelled from their American colonies in 1763 after losing the Seven Years War (French and Indian War) to the British.In the decade that followed, the British were taxing their newly acquired colonies unfairly, and the call for independent rule could be heard echoing across the land.Downtown Marietta in July 2007, including the Muskingum River (foreground) and the Ohio River (background right). Photo by Tim Kiser CC BY-SA 2.5By the time of the Boston Tea Party in 1773, America was in open revolt against its British rulers and the French were secretly forging a special relationship with the rebellion.The Thirteen Colonies declared war on the British in 1775, in what would become known as the American War for Independence.Boston Tea Party.The French officially allied itself with the Thirteen Colonies in 1778 but it is generally agreed that the French were supplying arms, tactical assistance and military support even before this date.The 1778 alliance between the newly formed American Congress and the French government proved pivotal in the defeat of the English and in 1782 peace negotiations were opened in Paris.These talks were a convoluted affair, and in the end, the French were frozen out when the Americans reached a private agreement with the British. In the agreement, the British recognized America as a sovereign nation and agreed to a trade pact with the new continent.Campus Martius fort at Marietta, with the conical Great Mound visible in background.Post-war America was a place of wild frontiers and possibilities; Congress had made it easier to buy large pieces of land and being short of cash, they paid their soldiers in warrants which could be used against the purchase of land.The Ohio Company of Associates was a group of industrious revolutionary war officers who formed together and used their warrants to buy up a large tract of land in Ohio on the banks of the Muskingum river.The site was not chosen at random but had been surveyed by the future president George Washington in 1770 who discussed plans to settle the area with a fellow officer by the name of Rufus Putnam, a founding member of the Ohio Company.George Washington statue erected outside The National Gallery in Trafalgar Square, London, England, UK, presented by ‘The Commonwealth Of Virginia’ in 1921, this is a duplicate, the original being in Richmond, Virginia.Of the settlement, George Washington later said: “No colony in America was ever settled under such favorable auspices as that which has just commenced at the Muskingum.”The site has become famous as the first permanent settlement of the new United States and was originally named Adelphia, meaning brotherhood, in 1788.The town name was changed the same year to Marietta in honor of Marie Antoinette of France to recognize the contribution of the French in the fight for independence.Marie Antoinette in a court dress.Legend has it that Marie Antoinette was flattered by the gesture and sent a commemorative bell to honor the town. Unfortunately, the gift was lost at sea and never made it to Marietta.During the unrest of the French Revolution, the city of Marietta offered land and shelter to the beleaguered monarch, the offer was declined, and the site is now home to the Mound Cemetery of Marietta.Due to its location along the banks of the Muskingum river, Marietta was a strategic port during the first half of the 19th century.Read another story from us: Karl Marx was a Foreign Correspondent for one of America’s Largest NewspapersThe Marietta town council had hopes of being named the central city of Ohio, but with the advent of new forms of transportation, such as the railway, the city became less important but has maintained its position as the country seat. There are now eighteen cities called Marietta situated in the United States, the largest of these being in Cobb County, Georgia.
Back in 2004, thieves took away two rare limestone reliefs that for millennia had rested in a Medieval church close to Burgos, in the north of Spain. The stolen church artifacts, which were found only recently, display the images of two Catholic saints, one of them being John the Evangelist. Each of the reliefs weigh about 110 lbs and their worth is deemed priceless. The church, called Santa Maria de Lara, is dated back to and associated with the Visigoths, the Germanic tribe that reigned over much of the territory of present-day southern France and Spain between the 5th and 8th centuries. It’s an important site since experts believe this is among the earliest Catholic churches built on Spanish territory and accommodates one of the earliest depictions of Christ in Spanish religious art. In November 1929, the church attained national monument status.A view of the surviving west face of the Visigothic church. Initially the center part of this wall would have been on the interior of the original church. Photo by Jethrothompson – CC BY-SA 3.0The thieves seemed to be unaware of the background of the artifacts at first. They were perhaps disappointed that they were not going to earn millions. Since national and world treasures are hard to sell, they eventually opted to sell their plunder as garden decor. They still managed to nail down a lucrative deal, however.Fast forward to 2019: Dutch-born art detective Arthur Brand has found the stolen reliefs, rotting in a north London garden in the ownership of an aristocratic family. Each piece had been purchased by the family for about $65,000 or £50,000 in British currency.The identity of the family who made the purchase remains a secret. According to Brand, who is renowned in his field of work, the family unwittingly bought the artifacts.Two priceless stone reliefs stolen from a mysterious ancient Spanish church in 2004 were handed back after they were traced to an English garden where they were displayed as ornaments. Dubbed the ‘Indiana Jones of the art world’ because of his exploits, Dutch art detective Arthur Brand said he handed the carvings back to the Spanish embassy at a private ceremony in London. (Photo credit NIKLAS HALLE’N/AFP/Getty Images)“It ended up in the garden of an English nobleman, who did not know that it was world heritage, where they would stay like 15 years,” Brand told AFP.“You can imagine how horrified they were to learn that their garden ornaments were, in fact, priceless stolen Spanish religious art,” he said.Mr. Brand has been searching for the plundered artifacts for about nine years. He had initially obtained information from an unnamed British source that a strange type of item had shown up in London.One of two 7th century limestone Visigoth reliefs is displayed, having been recovered by Dutch art detective Arthur Brand (not pictured), in north London on January 20, 2019, the reliefs, depicting evangelists, where both stolen from the Maria del Lara Church in Spain.(Photo credit NIKLAS HALLE’N/AFP/Getty Images)As the story goes, the reliefs had reached London in a truck operated by a French dealer, after which the saints were offered on sale as garden decoration. Brand was able to find the French dealer, and the investigation ultimately concluded in the garden of the unnamed British family.Brand told AFP that the family got “quite nervous” as the age-old artifacts “that were made for the Spanish sun were in their garden, exposed to the English rain.”Arthur Brand poses with the missing mosaic of St Mark, a rare piece of stolen Byzantine art from Cyprus, in a hotel room in The Hague on November 17, 2018. – Brand said he handed back the artwork to Cypriot authorities on the same day. (Photo by Jan HENNOP / AFP)Brand’s latest investigation only adds to his impressive list of solved cases. He has famously been dubbed the “Indiana Jones of the art world” and some of his tasks have required him to even negotiate with criminal gangs.Live Science notes that other high profile cases he has handled involve “a 1,600-year-old mosaic stolen from a church in Cyprus when Turkey occupied the country in 1974” as well as “two bronze horse sculptures commissioned by Adolf Hitler during the second world war.”Dutch art detective Arthur Brand poses with the missing mosaic of St Mark, a rare piece of stolen Byzantine art from Cyprus, in a hotel room in The Hague on November 17, 2018. – Brand said he handed back the artwork to Cypriot authorities on the same day. (Photo by Jan HENNOP / AFP) (Photo credit should read JAN HENNOP/AFP/Getty Images)According to the Independent, Brand has helped return two million dollars worth of paintings, “Salvador Dali’s 1941 Surrealist work Adolescence and Polish Art Deco painter Tamara de Lempicka’s La Musicienne (1929), which featured in Madonna’s ‘Vogue’ music video.”In the aftermath of Brand’s latest investigation, the Spanish religious reliefs were safely returned to the Spanish embassy in London during a private ceremony held on 21 January, according to the AFP.Read another story from us: Ancient Egyptian Carving Found Defaced as Part of a Supernatural Revenge PlotNext, the artifacts will undergo restoration upon their return to the Santa Maria de Lara church. Since their cultural and historical value is unquestionable, to find them in a garden after a quest that lasted nearly a decade, in the words of the renowned art detective is “just incredible.”
During the season, we mostly see a stoic Bill Belichick addressing the media with brief, mumbling responses that provide zero insight into anything relevant to the Patriots players or strategy.However, there is a relatively little known segment on the Pats website called “Belichick’s Breakdown,” where he breaks down actual film, and it’s absolute gold.In this video, Bill goes on for two minutes while giving every single detail of Chris Hogan’s 47-yard touchdown pass from Tom Brady against the Texans, including how he and Josh McDaniels made an adjustment after running the same play earlier in the game, that allowed them to burn Houston for six.If you don’t understand why he’s the best coach ever, watch him drill down on this film, and it should be pretty clear. This is like Einstein breaking down a physics equation. It’s crack for football nerds like us.