Crevasses form in response to tensile stresses in glaciers and ice sheets. It has been widely assumed that crevasses initiate at, or near, the surface of the ice, from starter cracks up to a few centimeters long. If the tensile stress is sufficient, these cracks propagate downward into the ice to form a crevasse, until the weight-induced lithostatic stress prevents them penetrating deeper. We present ground-penetrating radar data acquired on the Rutford Ice Stream, Antarctica, which indicate that crevasses occur at depths of several meters beneath the ice surface and were formed in areas where surface crevassing is absent. The data support the hypothesis that these are examples of subsurface crevasse formation. Using linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM), we investigate the feasibility of crevasse initiation at depth. We consider the initiation of an isolated crevasse from a subsurface crack, subject to a “dynamic tensile stress” which results from deformation associated with ice movement and a weight-induced lithostatic stress. The LEFM approach allows us to estimate a(init), the minimum length a crack must be before crack propagation will occur. In earlier models of crevasse formation, it was assumed that the dynamic tensile stress is constant with depth. We consider a more realistic scenario, where the dynamic tensile stress varies with depth, in such a way that the tensile strain rate remains constant. We show that in this scenario, crevasse initiation from centimeter-scale starter cracks is feasible at depths of 10-30 m, as well as at the surface. At present, the formulation of a reliable predictive model is limited by an incomplete knowledge of the mechanical properties of firn. In previous studies, the depth of buried crevasses has been used to estimate the time elapsed since ice was exposed to higher stresses and different flow regimes. In the light of the results presented here, those estimates may need to be reviewed.
The Dumont d’Urville Sea (East Antarctic region) has been less investigated for DNA barcoding and molecular taxonomy than other parts of the Southern Ocean, such as the Ross Sea and the Antarctic Peninsula. The Collaborative East Antarctic MARine Census (CEAMARC) took place in this area during the austral summer of 2007–2008. The Australian vessel RSV Aurora Australis collected very diverse samples of demersal and benthic organisms. The specimens were sorted centrally, and then distributed to taxonomic experts for molecular and morphological taxonomy and identification, especially barcoding. The COI sequences generated from CEAMARC material provide a sizeable proportion of the Census of Antarctic Marine Life barcodes although the studies are still ongoing, and represent the only source of sequences for a number of species. Barcoding appears to be a valuable method for identification within most groups, despite low divergences and haplotype sharing in a few species, and it is also useful as a preliminary taxonomic exploration method. Several new species are being described. CEAMARC samples have already provided new material for phylogeographic and phylogenetic studies in cephalopods, pycnogonids, teleost fish, crinoids and sea urchins, helping these studies to provide a better insight in the patterns of evolution in the Southern Ocean.
Following its entry into the pastry category last year, sausage brand Wall’s is to launch a range of Fully Loaded Hot Pies next month.In-depth consumer research identified “key areas of consumer discontent in pie products”, said the firm. These included too much pastry and not enough filling.Wall’s says its range has a thinner pastry casing than its competitors and will be available with a variety of different fillings: Chicken & Bacon (Smokey Sizzler), Chicken & Korma (Curryful Korma), Cajun Chicken (Smokin’ Hot Cajun) and Chilli Beef (Hot ’n’ Chilli).An on-pack promotion for the pies will run from 4 October and will offer consumers the chance to win ’Fully Loaded nights’.The firm has teamed up with 20th Century Fox to offer as the top prize a ’money can’t buy’ preview screening of Jack Black’s new Christmas Blockbuster movie, Gulliver’s Travels, in cinemas from Boxing Day.Wall’s entered the pastries market with the launch of a range of sausage rolls and slices in February 2009.
Another opportunity to hear from Michael Dell is coming at the SXSW Conference in March. Dell will be joined by Clay Johnston, the inaugural Dean of the Dell Medical School, to discuss “When Health Care Goes High-Tech.” Conference attendees can also see innovation in tech and meet other disruptive leaders making transformation real at THE EXPERIENCE coming from Dell Technologies at SXSW. “Here I am, supposed to be going to college and I’ve got this thriving business in my dorm room,” Michael Dell recently told Guy Raz when being interviewed for his “How I Built This” podcast.It’s the story that most people are familiar with when they think of Dell. And while those dorm room computer sales may have grown into today’s Dell Technologies company, it’s not where the story really begins.No, before he was buying computers, “souping them up” with more capability and reselling them from the campus of The University of Texas at Austin, Dell had a fascination with how things worked and an innate acumen for business.Dell told Raz he had a wide variety of businesses as a kid – from selling baseball cards to a stamp auction, to working in a gold coin and jewelry store buying item for resale. But to me, it’s his story of selling newspaper subscriptions that really gives insight into his ability to understand customers.He said he observed three things that helped him formulate a plan that would earn himself an income equal to my first job out of college when he was just 17 years old:If you sounded like the people you were talking to, they were much more likely to buy the newspaper from you,People that were getting married were much more likely to buy the newspaper, andPeople that were moving into a new house or residence were also far more likely to buy the newspaper.So, he lined up some high school buddies to go to local county courthouses and bring back public information on who had applied for marriage licenses, then sent those people letters with newspaper subscription offers. And he went to local condominium and apartment complexes that were under construction and pitched them on trial subscription offers for their new residents.“I did plenty of things that didn’t work, but that worked, so I kept doing itShare“I did plenty of things that didn’t work, but that worked, so I kept doing it,” he told Raz.That willingness to try many things and tenacity to keep at it when they didn’t always work probably helped when it came time to try to reassemble some of the things he took apart.You see, while a fascination with his father’s adding machine, led to the purchase of his first electronic calculator at age seven or eight. And the proximity of a Radio Shack store between home and school meant much time hanging out there checking out new technologies. Just looking at them wasn’t enough.“What else would you do?” Dell replied when Raz was amazed to hear that he’d taken apart an early IBM PC he bought to determine that the $3,000 system was actually made from about $600 worth of parts. (Now you really see the beginnings of that dorm room business.)“I wanted to understand it,” Dell explained. “And to understand it, you had to take it apart.”If you want to understand the vision and leadership that drives our company, then I encourage you to take time to listen to the full interview:
FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailPrint分享Brian Maffly for the Salt Lake Tribune:The Utah Legislature last week approved a $53 million investment in an Oakland, Calif., export terminal, but the state’s coal-shipping aspirations may still be just a dream.So far, Utah is the only entity that may pledge money toward building a $275 million bulk-freight terminal at the deep-water port under construction at the site of the former Oakland Army Base.But Utah wouldn’t pay up until $200 million in private financing is secured — and the identity of those investors and the status of their contributions is unknown.Another hurdle: Utah’s money wouldn’t be released until the four rural Utah counties borrowing it for the investment have a plan to pay it back if the terminal can’t move coal profitably. No plan has been offered.Then there’s opposition to overcome in California — the hoped-for source of more taxpayer money and construction permits.Sen. Loni Hancock, D-Berkeley, is asking her state’s transportation officials to withhold further public funding from the larger, $1.2 billion project of converting the military base into a port until questions about the coal-exporting terminal are resolved.The coal-producing Utah counties of Carbon, Sevier, Sanpete and Emery initially secured a loan from Utah’s Permanent Community Impact Fund to invest $50 million in the proposed terminal, in exchange for 49 percent of its 9.5-million-metric-ton loading capacity.However, the Utah Attorney General’s Office apparently declined to sign off on the loan, necessitating last week’s passage of SB246 as a legal workaround.Normally, money from the fund — derived from federal mineral royalties — is spent on civic projects in the counties where mining and drilling occur. But in recent years, county commissioners who run the Community Impact Board (CIB) have become interested in funding grander projects that would deliver commodities to market.SB246, which Gov. Gary Herbert is expected to sign, circumvented limits on how counties may spend revenues from the fund. It cycles community impact revenue — critics call it “laundering” — through the state Transportation Fund and back to the CIB in a new pool of money known as the “Throughput Infrastructure Fund,” which also can be tapped to build transmission lines, pipelines and rail.When the CIB first approved the loan in April 2015, it included an additional $3 million to cover administrative costs — such as paying consultants like Jeff Holt, a former Utah Transportation Commission chairman who brokered the deal between the counties and the CIB.The CIB’s approval was premised on Holt’s claim that the $200 million in private financing needed to build the Oakland Bulk and Oversized Terminal would be secured by June 2015.“This benchmark has been missed. That means the only player in this transaction with an open checkbook and a deep pocket is the state of Utah,” said critic Tom Sanzillo, director of finance for the Institute of Energy Economics and Financial Analysis.Full Article: Utah’s coal-export deal still faces high hurdlesRelated articles:Let Them Eat CoalCoal port fund swap ignored usual premium charged by state Many Barriers to Utah Coal-Export Scheme
Yesterday, the East Coast distribution hub of the Sierra Nevada Brewery in Mills River, North Carolina announced a recall of certain bottled beers that may be susceptible to a manufacturing defect that could lead to customers potentially ingesting broken shards of glass.According to the company, “the flaw may result in loss of carbonation and a small piece of glass to break off and possibly fall into the bottle, causing a risk for injury.”The recall stretches to 36 different states in the Southeast, on the East Coast, and throughout the Midwest, and includes the brewery’s flagship Pale Ale along with its popular Torpedo IPA, the Otra Vez and several others.The affected state are: AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI and WV.“While we believe this concern impacts roughly 1 in every 10,000 (0.01%) of our bottles packaged during this time, Sierra Nevada has set the standard for quality in the craft brewing industry since 1980 and we have decided to take this precaution to ensure the safety of our consumers,” the company announced on its website.The affected beer has a package date that falls between Dec. 5,2016, and Jan. 13, 2017 and a brewery code of “M” – which stands of Mills River – printed directly on bottles and the packaging of cardboard cases. Reference the list below to find out about every beer that was included in the recall. Related:
Motorbikes remain criminals’ vehicle of choice Acero said Medellín’s pilot law doesn’t represent the first time that authorities have tried to restrict passengers on motorcycles. Bans on having any passengers have been used occasionally in Medellín and other Colombian cities during threats to public order, including riots or incursions by armed groups. “What is new in Medellín,” he said, “is to solely prohibit male passengers and leave female passengers. That is unique.” Motorcycle killings are now ubiquitous throughout Latin America. In Honduras, which has the world’s highest murder rate, Congress in 2011 banned all motorcycle passengers. “As the crime of narcotrafficking has moved to other countries,” Acero said, “of course the governments also adopt methods of control that have served in other countries.” In the last decade, homicides in Medellín have plummeted, but motorcycles still figure heavily in them, and other crimes. Bands of criminals known as combos vie for small territories where they can sell drugs, extort businesses and rob citizens. Their main method of transport, León said, is the motorcycle. “The motorcycle has become the tool of their trade, León said. “In a way, this stigmatizes everyone with a motorcycle.” To limit the impact on citizens, the pilot law was put in effect only during December and January, two months when schools and universities are closed for vacations. León said a decision on whether to make the restriction permanent won’t be made until after January. Quijano said that if the law does become permanent, lower-income people — many of whom use motorbikes as their only mode of transportation — will either reject or ignore it. “The only ones this will affect are the poor here, those who use motorcycles to transport their families.” Sicarios popularized by Medellín cocaine cartel Before 1970, motorcycles were actually a rare sight in Medellín, with only a single company, Auteco, manufacturing an Italian-style scooter called the Lambretta. In 1972, the first Kawasaki motorcycles appeared, and three years later Yamaha sold its first bikes in the city. In his recent book, Colombian journalist José Guarnizo writes that Griselda Blanco — known as the “godmother of cocaine” for her blood-soaked style of street justice — instituted motorcycle killings back in the early 1970s. Before that, Medellín’s hitmen had killed from cars, but Blanco mandated that all hits be carried out on motorcycles after two of her men were caught in traffic while doing a job and were captured by police. “In the mid-1970s, there were these type of killings using motorcycles but not so much,” said Fernando Quijano, an organized crime investigator and director of the Medellín-based human rights group Corpades. The practice exploded during the 1980s and was popularized by the Medellín cocaine cartel led by Pablo Escobar. It first captured the attention of Colombians at large when Rodrigo Lara Bonilla, the nation’s minister of justice, was killed by motorcycle on Escobar’s orders. Trend worsened after Escobar’s death On the night of April 30, 1984, Bonilla had left his office in Bogotá and was driving his white Mercedes when two men on a new Yamaha motorcycle pulled up behind his car’s right rear fender and shattered the rear window with bullets. In an ensuing firefight with authorities, the gunman was killed, but police arrested the driver: Byron Velasquez Arenas, a 16-year-old from Medellín who had never finished high school. “Byron was very young,” Quijano said, “and that had a strong impact.” In the late ‘80s and early ‘90s, during Escobar’s simultaneous battles against the state and rival cartels, motorcycle killings became ubiquitous. Medellín’s poor youth received $2,000 from Escobar for every policeman or soldier they killed, causing the ranks of sicarios to swell. After Escobar’s death in 1993, the homicides continued apace as the armed and experienced young sicarios looked for work, charging as little as $200 per murder. The sicarios always used the fastest and nimblest motorcycles, Quijano said, and the drivers often were hitmen themselves, who taught the younger riders how to kill. “The motorbike became symbol of power,” said Quijano. The sicarios rode “with a pistol in one hand and a woman wrapped around the other.” Hugo Acero, a security consultant who has worked for the mayor of Bogotá, said the freelance hitmen came to be hired not just by narcotraffickers looking to resolve their problems, but also by ordinary citizens. “People used them to recover debts, to avenge an unfaithful lover,” he said. “In the case of Colombia, the sicarios were used to punish.” In 1999, when Acero was working as Bogotá’s security secretary, journalist and activist Jaime Garzón was killed by a motorcycle hitman. Garzón was sitting at a stoplight on a Bogotá street when the two men on a motorcycle pulled alongside him. During the investigation, Acero said, several witnesses reported the same facts: the faces of the motorcyclists had been obscured by helmets with dark face shields, and seconds before pulling out his gun, the rider had covered the license plate with a cloth. The lengths to which the assassins went to conceal their identities led Bogotá’s mayor to institute a law requiring all motorcyclists to wear vests printed with reflective material, displaying their license plates in large numbers and letters. The same number was also printed on the back of their helmets. That law reduced homicides in Bogotá, and had other unforeseen benefits: the number of people killed or injured in motorcycle crashes decreased because the bikers were more visible at night. The law was soon copied by other Colombian cities, including Medellín. Medellín authorities see huge drop in bank robberies By Dialogo January 21, 2013 MEDELLÍN, Colombia — For decades, motorbikes have been the cheapest and most convenient mode of transport on Medellín’s sinuous streets, where they dart and weave nimbly among traffic. But motorcycles are also a deadly tool here, used by sicarios, or hitmen, to get close to their victims. The sicarios ride in pairs, with the driver and gunman sidling up alongside their targets, disposing of them with a few shots, then racing away. In recent years, authorities have tried to stem motorcycle hits by requiring all motorcyclists to wear reflective vests and helmets that display their license plate numbers. However, such measures have been slow to work. During the first 10 months of 2012, Medellín recorded 176 murders on motorcycles — or 15 percent of all homicides, according to Eduardo Rojas León, Medellin’s secretary of security. And motorcycles were used in more than a quarter of carjackings and half of motorcycle thefts. To curb the number of crimes in which motorcycles are used, Medellín Mayor Anibal Gaviria Correa has signed a pilot law preventing men — and even male children — from riding as passengers on motorbikes in Medellín and nine surrounding municipalities from 8 a.m. to 10 p.m. The law, also adopted in nine surrounding municipalities, is effective through the end of January, and if it reduces motorcycle crimes, may become permanent. “Here always we have in mind,” León said, “that a motorcycle with a male passenger is synonymous with sicarios and danger.” Acero said that he believes the new measure will reduce homicides in Medellín, though not drastically. The law could have other benefits, he said, such as cutting thefts and robberies by motorcycle passengers. Since the law went into effect, holdups of bank tellers diminished from 36 cases in November to four in December, according to Medellín police. There were drastically fewer robberies at cash machines, he said. Nearly 600 motorcycles have been seized by police, and more than 1,400 citizens cited for flouting the law, León said. “What I hope for is a reduction of these offenses,” León said, “and also to have an effect on the perception of security for citizens.” Quijano, the organized crime investigator, was less optimistic that the law would reduce crime in a lasting way. “The criminal organizations here are structured as paramilitaries and mafias,” he said. “Each day they have more experience, and each day they adapt better to the responses offered by the city. They will use whatever means necessary, whether that be motorcycle, bus, car or approaching by foot.” And gangs will use women, which they rarely did two decades ago, Quijano said, noting that in Medellín, the number of women involved in sicario-related crimes is increasing. León, the city’s security secretary, said he thought it was unlikely the law would have the unintended consequence of more women being dragged into crime. “It is men who are involved in these activities,” he said. Mr. Robbins: since you are gringo, allow me to explain that Colombia is a democratic country where LAWS aren’t made by mayors but in the CONGRESS OF THE REPUBLIC as it should be in a democracy. An ordinary law requires the processing before both Congress chambers (Senate and the Chamber of Representatives) and this takes about a year. Other special laws take about two years (two legislative terms). Changing a word in a law takes about the same time as the issuance of a new law that amends the previous one. Meaning, just as in your country. We are not a rain-forest, Mr. Robbins. Those rules on motorcycles that you mention as changing overnight as if changing underpants, are DECREES (NOT LAWS), which are legal norms of the lowest hierarchy within the legal norms and are as such to allow mayors to handle situations with the agility that such situations require. I know you didn’t have ill intentions but it bothers me that people always speak about my country with getting the right information. Notice how you treat the murder victim RODRIGO LARA BONILLA as BONILLA, meaning as the son of a single mother!!! Here, my friend, our last name is our father’s name and that’s why he was LARA, because his parents were married and he was a legitimate child. A journalist that steps into the Spanish culture should know that we use both last names if we are legitimate children and only the mother’s name if we are natural children. Our Spanish culture is the only one that respects the last names of women since they don’t loose it when they marry (as in the rest of the world) and their last name is added to their children. It is a homage to women. I hope to have contributed to your education.
“They are in dire need of employees, and this will give an opportunity for people in our community to do that, and it’s a highly rewarding field also,” Mullins said. Once trained, those nurse assistants will enter the workforce, specifically helping out in facilities such as nursing homes and assisted living facilities. BT-BOCES Assistant Superintendent Jim Mullins said this is the area most in need in our community. He added BOCES has a long history of workforce development in the Southern Tier, specifically industries most in need. Broome-Tioga BOCES announced it received a federal grant as part of New York’s Workforce Development Initiative. The school told 12 News Wednesday the money will be used to train 20 new nurse assistants. TOWN OF DICKINSON (WBNG) — Reinforcements are coming soon to long-term care facilities in our area. The money comes from the federal government, and the grant is one of 66 that organizations across New York received to better train and develop the workforce.
RIPLEY COUNTY, Ind. — The Ripley County Drug Awareness Coalition is currently searching for a new coordinator.The coordinator supports and coordinates activities of the council such as special events and educational and awareness programs.The coordinator also works closely with Executive Committee members, news media, and the Indiana Criminal Justice Institute.If you are interested or would like more information call Becci Allen at 812-560-6463.
By Dana RoyerWEST BURLINGTON, Iowa (April 26) – Brandon Rothzen has dedicated this season to “Fighting for the Win For Chad” in the Ryners Transportation IMCA Modified division.And Saturday night at 34 Raceway, Rothzen picked up his second win in two nights for his friend and crew member Chad Gall, who is battling leukemia. Gall underwent a stem cell transplant nearly three weeks ago and what better boost to than a feature win by his buddy Brandon. Rothzen took the lead on lap nine in the 20-lap feature when Tyler Glass went off the track and brought out the caution. Rothzen went on to take the checkered flag followed by Dennis LaVeine, Mitch Morris and Jerrod Fuller rounding out the top four.Brandon’s wife Ally brought out the iPad to use Facetime with Chad during the winners pictures. Also picking up IMCA wins Saturday were Tommy Bowling and Sean Wyett. Wyett won his first Casebine Credit Union IMCA SportMod feature at 34 Raceway this year by topping a nice field of 18 entries. Wyett took the lead in the 15-lap feature from his front row start and never looked back. The Pepsi IMCA Stock Cars put on a show for the fans in the 16-car field with Bowling taking the lead from John Oliver on the final lap of the 20-lap feature for the win.Coming out of turn four, Oliver and Bowling got together, with Bowling getting sideways and Oliver pushing the number 14 across the finish line and giving Bowling the win in a wild finish.